Nilanjan Mukherjee, Engineering director, Tessent, Mentor A Siemens Business, presented the opening keynote on day 2 of the ITC 2018, on self-driving cars and how they are pushing the boundaries of IC testing.
Automotive ICs will grow from 7.4 percent in 2017 to 9.3 percent by 2021. New entrants are attracted by new revenue opportunities. Leading auto makers are planning to launch self-driving cars, such as Tesla, GM, Hyundai, Renault-Nissan, Toyota, Volvo, etc., as per the Boston Consulting Group. According to McKinsey & Co., 57 percent of customers globally, trust self-driving cars.
Increasing detection capabilities require higher compute performance. Higher compute requirements are accelerating the process node requirements. For the next decade, the number of gates will double every 2 years. There will be 2x more compression every 2 years, just to maintain the test cost. There is a huge increase in transistor processing, and trends will continue with the future 5nm/3nm nodes. Further scaling will require density increase, in addition to the pitch scaling.
Test requirements ensure that semiconductor devices remain defect free. They should also ensure that any new defects are quickly detected throughout the device’s operational lifecycle. Low defective parts per billion – the implications of defective parts in automotive apps, are more severe than in consumer apps. The defect coverage should cover all circuitry.
More defects and lower DPPB require better coverage. There are complete defect excitation considerations. The defects are prioritized by their physical likelihood.
Automotive grade ATPG provides a complete set of critical area-based fault models for manufacturing tests. Cell-aware test benefits are well documented. Additional user–defined fault models (UDFM) are targeting inter-cell defects and interconnect bridges and open defects. We have to find ways to reduce the test time for analog parts.
Typically low coverage is 70-90 percent for analog parts. Fault simulation allows one to determine portions not being tested. There is a need to eliminate the manual FMEDA metric estimates that are required for ISO-26262. The fault simulator can report the metrics automatically, eliminating untolerated faults, and achieving higher ASIL rating.
There are multiple modes of in-system testing. Key-on tests have very little time budget. Limited functions are tested. Key-off tests see comprehensive testing. The budget is 10x times that of key-on tests. Finally, online tests are challenging. They are periodic and incremental.
Mission-mode controller is the in-system test controller. It automates communication between the test instruments and the service processor.
The new VersaPoint test point technology gives 2-4 percent SAF coverage vs. LBIST (logic built-in self test) test points. That’s 2X-3X reduction in test time at 90 percent coverage. It also reduces deterministic ATPG pattern counts by 2-4X.
VersaPoint test points with observation during shift helps in fast in-system logic monitoring. This helps on an average to reduce the test times by 3-4X.
Requirements for future in-system test solutions:
* Able to apply any type of test.
* Able to add, modify and update the in-system tests during the entire lifecycle of an IC.
* Minimal system memory and incremental data.
Programmable deterministic BIST for FuSa (functional safety) include two levels of highly compressed patterns. This reduces the memory required to store the patterns on the chip.
In the non-destructive memory BIST, there are traditional memory BIST constraints. Memory is tested in small bursts of activity by making sure that the original contents of the memory is restored after test.
Austemper acquisition by Siemens brings solutions across all areas. It is a completely functional safety solution. There is safety analysis, so you can design an automotive for safety. It also has safety verification, and multi-domain fault injection, providing evidence to achieve ASIL compliance.
Automotive ICs have redefined the standard for quality of manufacturing.
Semiconductors is a tough business, and definitely not for the faint hearted, said Suman Narayan, senior VP, for Semiconductors, IoT and Analytics, Cyient. If you are in DFT, you are in the insurance business. He was moderating a panel discussion on ‘fault tolerance vs. fault intolerance’.
Rubin Parekhji, senior technologist, Texas Instruments, said that a system is fault tolerant if there is no error. An app is fault tolerant if there is no intolerant fault. An affordable system should be fault tolerant. Which faults are important? How are hardware-software fault tolerant? For instance, if not done well, it will lead to bulky devices. There is a need to optimize and differentiate. There is a need to build fault tolerant systems using fault intolerant building blocks.
Jais Abraham, director of engineering, Qualcomm, said that device complexity has increased 6X times since 2010. There is a disproportionate increase in test cost vs. node shrink benefits. Are we good at fault finding? It’s our fault. Be intolerant to faults, but don’t be maniacal. Think of the entire gamut of testing. Think of the system, and not just the chip. Think of the manufacturing quality, and find remedies. Fault tolerance may mean testing enough such that it meets the quality requirements of customers, who are becoming intolerant. We continue to invest in fault tolerance architectures.
Ruchir Dixit, Technical director, Mentor, felt that making a system robust is the choice. The key is the machine that we make, and whether it is robust. The customers expect a quality robust system. Simpler systems make up a complex system. Successful system deals with malfunctions. There are regenerative components. The ISO-26262 standard drives robustness.
Dr Sandeep Pendharkar, Engineering director, Intel, felt that there is an increased usage of semiconductors in apps such as ADAS and medical. Functional safety (FuSa) requires unprecedented quality levels. Now, DPPM has changed to DPPB.
Achieving near zero DPPB on the nearest node is nearly impossible. Fault tolerance is the way forward. How should the test flows change to comprehend all this? Should we cap the number of recoverable faults before declaring a chip unusable?
Ram Jonnavithula, VP of Engineering, Tessolve, said that a pacemaker should be fault tolerant, with zero defects. Fault tolerance requires redundancy, mechanism to detect and isolate faults. Sometimes, fault tolerance could mean reduced performance, but the system still functions.
Adit D. Singh, Prof. Electrical & Computer Engineering, Auburn University, USA, highlighted the threats to electronics reliability. These are:
* Test escapes – DPPM. Especially, escape from testing components. Also, timing defects.
* New failures occur during operation. They can also be due to aging.
* Poor system design, which are actually, no solution. There can be design errors and improper shields.
Test diversity helps costs. Design diversity helps fault tolerance costs. Design triplicated modules independently. Avoid correlated failures.
So, what’s it going to be? Be fault tolerant! Or, fault intolerant?
At the ongoing ITC 2018, Dr Yervant Zorian , Synopsys fellow and chief architect, delivered the keynote. He said that today, change is in automotive and IoT. There were 15 competitors in 2004, which became six in autonomous driving. Connected cars is growing at 25 percent, and 92 percent connected cars should be built in 2020.
As of now, we have around 100 million codes in 2017, which are moving on to 300 million by 2025. The emerging technology trends are:
* Semi-autonomous /autonomous vehicles
* V2V (Vehicle to vehicle)
* V2I (Vehicle to infrastructure)
* Cloud connectivity
* Target users all age groups
Automotive apps need different SoC architectures. There are high-end ADAS, infotainment and MCUs.
ADAS is among the fastest-growing auto app. Sensors are seeing a fusion of massive data. We act fast, post data interpretation. The more data we provide to ML, we can get better results, via machine learning. AI is another growing area. There will be AI chips worth $38.6 million by 2025.
Automotive grade IP reduce risk and increase safety. Automotive test phases are in production test, power-on self-testing and in-field testing. Innovations benefit advanced designs on established nodes. We are now having EPPM below 1.
Automotive electrification drives the use of design IP. The amount and variety of IP is increasing. ASIL D/D is now ready for AEC-Q100 testing. Each Fin has to be accurate, to reduce repair. There is on-chip self-repair as well.
On logic side, ATPG is there for autonomous testing. The SoC-level hierarchical system automates. Fault diagnosis is done via the DDR PHY. Automotive grade IP (FS) reduces risk.
There is also the automotive safety integrity level (ASIL). ASIL levels of final product depends on implementation. Reliability, reduces risks. Mission-critical automotive ICs need ECCC. Adding RAS is also important.
Automotive test phases include production test phase, power on phase and mission mode phase, respectively.
Power on-off and periodic self-test for mission mode are available. Periodic testing can be done block by block. We need to pay to attention to the safety manager. Also, M-BIST implementation is must for functional safety. There is the Synopsys M-BIST.
Security is very critical, once we are connecting cars. Secure hardware is the root of trust. The tRoot provides a chipset that cannot be tampered. There must be detection and protection. Safety, quality and security play important roles.
NXP Semiconductors has been a major player in the automotive electronics industry. How has the automotive electronics market in India has evolved over the last few years?
Sanjay Gupta, senior director, NXP Semiconductors, said: The Indian automotive industry transforming at a significant pace, so much so that it has emerged as the seventh largest in the world. The automotive electronics industry is set to rise to Rs.13.04 lakh crore ($240 billion) by 2020. The growing consumer demand for performance, safety and infotainment systems in the vehicles has given rise to the inflated demands.
“Today, if we look at any modern car it contain up to 100 control units (ECUs), managing everything from infotainment to mission-critical systems. Innovation especially in this segment is growing and will also be instrumental in decreasing road safety concerns. One trend which is quite dominant is product innovation, which is evolving constantly.
“Today, manufacturers use innovations like smart objects, autonomous production, and access to the cloud to support customization on a large scale and manufacture products in close to real-time. This is further accelerated by the use of NFC, IoT and will increase automation dramatically. This paves way for complex electronic systems and providing cost competitive electronic solutions is a challenge and an opportunity for Indian automotive companies.
Future of automotive electronics in India
Let us examine the future of automotive electronics industry in India.
He added that there is a lot of potential for the automotive electronics segment in India especially with the advent of concepts like IoT and Smart Cities. Consumer demand for safety, connectivity, and infotainment in the vehicle are keeping auto electronics industry on their toes.
There has been a major thrust in the safety and infotainment/interior electronics space, with safety being mandated by governments and ratified by a consortium of automotive OEMs in recent times.
Consumer demand has also fueled developments in the lighting, emergency systems, and display space in the automotive interior and exterior electronics spaces. According to ReportsnReports, global auto electronics market is to grow at a CAGR of 14.42 percent during the period 2016-2020.
The technologies that are gradually pushing vehicular electronics toward navigating and communicating with each other have already been adopted from the aviation industry. Connected vehicular technologies are significant and considered the middle ground between purely mechanical components and pure electronics.
The auto industry is ever evolving and thrives upon new technological developments for growth as newer built in features in the car are grabbing eyeballs of potential buyers. For instance, we have seen a gradual phase out of mechanical and hydraulic systems from vehicles and entry of electronic or hybrid substitutes in passenger cars and commercial vehicles segment.
Consumers are moving toward technological developments which will make their life easy and hassle free. In the age of digital connectivity, the technology inside car plays an important role. Concepts like smart cities and IoT are turning into reality, and that is the reason behind digital technology acting as a growth driver for the overall auto industry.
Read the rest of this entry »